What are scrotal pain and lumps?

Swelling of the scrotum refers to lesions in the skin of the scrotum and its contents (the sheath testis, epididymis, and spermatic cord), or the contents of the abdominal cavity (ascites viscera) descend into the scrotum, resulting in an increase in the volume of the scrotum.

Causes of swollen scrotum
Lesions that cause enlarged scrotum can be divided into three main categories:
    • (1) Lesions of the scrotal wall, such as edema of the scrotal wall, hematoma of the scrotal wall, elephantiasis of the scrotal wall after filariasis, erysipelas, skin gangrene, cellulitis, and urine extravasation.
    • (2) Lesions of scrotal contents
    • Hydrocele, hydrocele, hemocele, hypopyon. hydrocele chyle
    • Epididymis Acute and chronic epididymitis, epididymis tuberculosis, epididymis blood stasis after sterilization of epididymis, seminal cyst.
    • Testicular inflammation, testicular tuberculosis, testicular syphilis. testicular tumor
    • Spermatic cord inflammation, spermatic cord hydrocele, varicocele, spermatic cord torsion, spermatic cord sheath cyst, hemophilia nodules, spermatic cord hematoma, painful nodules of the vas deferens after sterilization, and sperm after sterilization Granuloma.
    • (3) The contents of the abdominal cavity enter the scrotum, such as ascites or indirect inguinal hernia, and the contents of the hernia (small intestine, bladder, omentum, etc.) enter the scrotum.
If you experience any of these symptoms, you should seek medical attention for diagnosis and treatment as soon as possible.
Diagnosis and treatment of swollen scrotum
Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of swollen scrotum:
    • Local symptoms Most infected scrotal cysts are accompanied by symptoms such as redness, heat, and pain; testicular or attached tumors often have falling pain; late elephantiasis often have eczema or ulcers due to secondary infection
    • Systemic or other systemic symptoms Scrotal enlargement with systemic fever is an acute infection such as mumps complicated by acute orchitis; epididymal tuberculosis may be accompanied by urinary frequency, urgency, dysuria and other symptoms of urinary tuberculosis

*Men should learn to check the scrotum by themselves: the most important tissues in the scrotum are testes, epididymis and spermatic cord. Check and pay attention to the following issues:

    1. Check the testicle for swelling, pain when light pressure is applied, and any irregular lumps on the surface of the testicle.
    2. While touching the testicles, you may perceive the epididymis as a foreign body. The epididymis is a flat strip attached to the back and upper part of the testis, about 5-6 cm long, and the upper end of the epididymis is enlarged and blunt, called the head of the epididymis. When checking, you can gently squeeze with your index finger and thumb, and pay attention to whether there are painful indurations caused by inflammation, soft and fluctuating seminal cysts, or epididymis induration and stasis due to blockage of the vas deferens.
    3. Pass up the testicle and you’ll feel the spermatic cord, which is the cord-like tissue that sits in the upper part of the testicle. Gently twist it with your thumb and index finger, and you can feel that there is a relatively hard tube like a thin hemp rope, which is the vas deferens. When checking the spermatic cord, it is worth noting that the whole tube is smooth and whether there is a mass of earthworm-like material in the middle. It will feel smaller when lightly pressed. If it feels unsmooth but there are no obvious lumps, you can try to screen the tube. It may be clear from the bulging stomach, this is the dilated spermatic vein. Varicocele is one of the main causes of male infertility.
    4. When you find a lump in the scrotum during self-examination, or find other things in the scrotum, or there is a big difference between the two sides, etc., you should immediately seek a doctor for further examination. prolong the disease.

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1. Gently examine each testicle with both hands by rolling the testicle between the thumb and forefinger.

2. Locate the epididymis, the tube-like structure behind the testicle that collects and carries sperm. If you’re familiar with this structure, you won’t mistake it for an abnormal mass.

3. Look for any lumps or irregularities. Keep in mind that lumps or bumps may also appear painless.

4. Look for any changes in size, shape or texture. Remember that it is normal to have a slightly larger testicle on one side.

*The best time to do a self-exam is after a warm bath or shower with loose scrotal skin.
If you notice a lump or any of the changes above, see your doctor and make an appointment right away. Remember, testicular cancer can spread very quickly and is one of the most curable cancers if caught early.
Precautions: How to prevent scrotal swelling
How to prevent scrotal swelling :
    • Injuries to the skin of the scrotum are more common, such as scratches, abrasions, or abrasions from zippers. Prevention points: take protective measures to avoid injury as much as possible, if the scrotal skin is ecchymotic or hematoma after injury. Even the scrotum was torn, exposing the testicles to the surface. If it is handled correctly, the wound on the skin of the scrotum will heal quickly, so there is no need for particularly urgent treatment. Only consult a specialist for a larger wound. If the skin is not torn, you can rest in bed and use local cold compresses to relieve the pain; if the scrotum is torn and the testicles are exposed on the surface, you will need to inject tetanus antitoxin injections, local debridement, foreign body removal, and testicles. Reinfection; surgical reconstruction of the scrotum is required if the scrotal skin is completely avulsed.
    • Due to the special location of the scrotum, the air is not circulated, it is relatively humid, and the skin is mainly thin cuticle, with rich blood vessels and nerves. It is often rubbed by clothes and pants, and is prone to many skin diseases: such as jock itch, scabies, scrotum Pruritus, scrotal neurodermatitis, scrotal eczema, fixed drug eruption, etc. Prevention points: pay attention to personal hygiene habits, do not make underwear too tight, and underwear should be soft and breathable cotton. Regular life, do not eat irritating food. Common skin diseases of the scrotum, most of which are not difficult to treat as long as the diagnosis is accurate. For example, as long as you don’t take allergenic drugs for fixed drug rash, you only need to apply antifungal ointment for a few days for jock itch…the pain will be relieved soon. Therefore, men suffering from scrotal skin diseases must not delay the necessary treatment because they feel that “itching is not in the right place” and it is difficult to talk about it.